Meteors (the)

Meteors (the) – Psychobilly Revolution

Raucous Records RAUC079 [1999]
Intro – The Crazed – Hell Ain’t Hot Enough For Me – Deep Dark Jungle – Blue Sunshine – Little Red Riding Hood – Night Of The Werewolf – Wild Thing – Chainsaw Boogie – Corpse Grinder – Maniac Rockers from Hell – These Boots Are Made For Walkin’ – Insane – Rawhide – Mutant Rock

psychobilly revolution

Recorded live in the late ’90s St Petersburg’s Spartak Club, Russia, this album is very representative of the sound of the band at the time.
Too bad that the recording quality is not top-notch and that Fenech’s voice is a bit buried in the mix because the band (Shaun Berry on bass and Wolfgang Hordemann on drums) is in fine form.
The setlist presents no big surprise and mixes classics of the band (Crazed, Blue Sunshine, Mutant Rock…) with more recently released stuff at the time of the release (Hell Ain’t Hot Enough For Me…)
This live album remains good but not essential. For example, Welcome to the Wrecking Pit has more or less the same setlist but with a better sound.

Meteors (the) – Live, Leary and Fucking Loud!

Dojo Limited [1995]
Wipe Out – Maniac Rockers From Hell – Lonesome Train – I Ain’t Ready – Ain’t Gonna Bring Me Down – Sick Things – When A Stranger Calls – Sweet Love On My Mind – Mutant Rock – Rhythm Of The Bell – Lil’ Red Riding Hood – Long Blond Hair – Rock Bop – Rattlesnakin Daddy – Blue Sunshine – These Boots Are Made For Walking – Wild Thing – I Go To Bed With The Undead – Wreckin’ Crew – Meet Me At The Morgue – Spinebender


Live, Leary and Fucking Loud is a live album gathering songs taken from the Meteors’ first three live albums (Live, Horrible Music, For Horrible People, By This Horror-Ble Band and Live Style of the Sick and Shameless.) It gives a good overview of the live sound of the band during their first decade after the original line-up split. Also present are two live renditions of Spinebender and Meet Me At the Morgue. They make a very welcome bonus since both songs, taken from The Mutant Monkey and the Surfer from Zorch, never appeared on any live album before. The line-up on these songs is probably the mid-’90s line-up (Shaun Berry on bass and Wolfgang Hordemann on drums.)

Meteors (the) – International Wreckers – Live 4

Sonovabitch Records ROTT 90062 [1992]
Mutant Rock – Dateless Nights – Swamp Thing – Corpse Grinder – Alligator Man – Death Dance – Wild Thing – Bertha Lou – Get off of My Cloud – Electro II – Wrecking Crew – Rhythm of the Bell – Psycho Cat – Get off of My Cloud – Vibrate – The Crazed – Mind over Matter – These Boots Are Made for Walking

international wreckers

Unlike the previous live recordings released officially by the band, International Wreckers doesn’t present a complete show but a collection of songs recorded in various countries (France, Germany, UK, Holland) and at various venues. It’s a good idea and the occasion to include rarer material that appear on a live album for the first time like Swamp Thing (that is made for the stage), Alligator Man, Dateless Nite, Psycho Kat, Death Dance, Electro II next to the band’s stage favourites like Mutant Rock, These Boots Are Made Walking, Wrecking Crew or Rhythm Of the Bell featured here in a wild version. An essential addition to your collection.

Meteors (the) – Demonopoly

Sonovabitch Records ROTT 90042 [1992]
Who Do You Love – Electro III (Die Human Die) – The Devil Went Down To Moose’s – Fool No More – Bad Boy – Shock Rocker – Stomping (With The Wrecking Crew) – Big Sandy – The Life And Times Of Chameleon Head – Sometimes (The Infernal Chord) – Between Heaven And Hell – Ballad Of A Black Hearted Man (cd bonus track)

Demonopoly is the perfect follow-up to its predecessor, the excellent Madman Roll, maybe even darker and more menacing.
Everything is clear from the intro with the cover of Who Do You Love. The Bo Diddley track is swallowed, digested and spat out to become a formidable Meteors track, ready for the voodoo sabbath. Follows Electro III, an instrumental, after Electro (on Stampede) and Electro II (on Mutant Monkey). We can hear Fenech’s know-how when it comes to instrumental pieces: an exposition of the theme supported by a perfect rhythm and then an outburst of perfectly constructed ideas. The Devil Went Down To Moose’s applies Psychobilly recipes to a hillbilly structure, like Low Livin’ Daddy on Bang Bang Fruit, with a touch of harmonica at the end.
Fool No More is a seemingly simple piece. Still, as we listen, we are won over by the richness of the textures, the intricacy of the guitars, and the subtlety of the rhythm enriched by a light, almost subliminal honky tonk piano, which gives all its disturbing side to the piece. This arrangement also transforms a seemingly simple rock into an exciting song.
Supported by an unstoppable bass that keeps the tension throughout, Shock Rocker is one of those mini-classics like you find so many on the Meteors albums, which seems so natural to Fenech when other bands would dream of such a locomotive track for their albums.
Stomping is a simple and effective tune that refers to the first carelessness of Rock’n’Roll, these same roots that we find in the cover of Bobby Roberts’ Big Sandy.
The second instrumental of the album, the Life and Times of Chameleon Head, is a new demonstration of virtuosity and Fenech’s talent as a composer. His instrumentals are never a simple set of riffs put end to end or vain demonstrations, but on the contrary, such as the Shadows or certain film scores which must inspire him, we think of Morricone. They are subtly constructed sets. The arrangements are just as neat on Sometimes (the Infernal Chord) between the choirs, the breaks in tone and the solos. The track is the perfect launching pad for the album’s masterpiece and one of the best tracks of the Meteors, the sublime Between Heaven & Hell. This slow piece, over 5’40”, distils an unhealthy and threatening atmosphere. Behind the vocals, once again, the different textures, from the distorted guitars to the slightly detuned slide, which gives this uneasy feeling, everything contributes to creating the atmosphere that corresponds to the title.
The cd version is completed by an instrumental, the dark and threatening offspring of the Shadows and Ennio Morricone.

Meteors (the) – Madman Roll

Sonovabitch ROTT90021 [1991]
Madman Roll  Queen of the Slug People  Bertha Lou – Theme from The Hypnotist  You Can’t Touch Me  Paint It Black  You’re Mine  A Very Handy Man (Indeed) – Running ‘Round – Simply Ravishing

The Meteors Madman Roll

Released in 1991, Madman Roll opened a new chapter in the band’s history. The sound slightly changes, don’t worry, there’s no big departure, but it’s darker and even more threatening than ever. The result is one of their very best albums (and I pity those who stopped listening to the Meteors after In Heaven because they really miss something.)
The title track, which opens the album, sets the new tendency. Fenech sings like he’s possessed while Lee Brown and Mark Howe lay a solid groove for his intricated layers of guitar. Maybe it’s because that’s the first line-up I saw on stage, but I really like the Fenech-Brown-Howe partnership. Queen of the Slug People begins with a superb drums intro and evolves into a B-movie-themed masterpiece. Next is a cover of Dorsey Burnette’s Bertha Lou, a demonstration of pure Rockabilly mayhem. Theme From The Hypnotist is the first instrumental of the album. It takes time to expose the theme, with Fenech creating sound and texture with various guitars and then exploding in the middle. The first side closes with You Can’t Touch Me, a slow-paced tune with a Diddley beat that pursues the theme developed in songs like I Don’t Worry About It.

The B-side opens with a dark cover of the Rolling Stones’s Paint It Black. The Meteors have a unique talent for covering a song, keeping its skeleton and, at the same time, turning it into a Meteors song. You’re Mine is a love song, a Meteors love song that sounds like a frantic and modern version of the Johnny Burnette Trio.
A Very Handy Man is the album’s masterpiece (on one album that only counts excellent songs). Written about Ed Gein, whose picture is on the album’s cover, it demonstrates, if needed, that Paul Fenech is ten million miles ahead of any other psychobilly bands in songwriting. The slide guitar reinforces the dark and disturbing mood of the song, leaving the listener with an uneasy feeling.
Running Around is a shot of Rock’n’Roll straight to your veins. Each note of that song screams, “PLAY LOUD!”.
This magnificent album closes with Simply Ravishing, a groovy instrumental and one of the band’s very best. I could praise once again Fenech’s guitar(s), but Brown’s bass part is also equally impressive.

The Meteors career is made of excellent albums and masterpieces. Madman Roll falls, without a doubt, in that second category.

Reissued on vinyl and cd in 2022. Buy it here.

Meteors (the) – Live III – Live Styles of the Sick and the Shameless

Anagram records – GRAM 45 [1990]
Ex-Men Boogie  Wipe Out  Rattlesnakin Daddy  Mutant Rock  Maniac  Blue Sunshine  Mind Over Matter  These Boots  Lil Red Riding Hood  The Hills Have Eyes  Wild Thing  I Go to Bed (With the Undead)  Voodoo Rhythm  I Ain t Ready  Wreckin Crew – Lonesome Train*  Rock Bop*  Ain t Gonna Bring Me Down*  Graveyard Stomp*
*CD only

Live Styles of the Sick and the Shameless

This third official live album from the trio led by Paul Fenech is just as essential as the previous two. Why? will you ask, especially if you think that for the Meteors, there is no life after In Heaven and that after 1982, the group is only a pale copy of its past splendour, releasing albums that all sound the same. You are free to think that, but it would be like saying that the Ramones have always made the same album, and in the end, you would miss the point. The bottom line is that Fenech is an outstanding composer, a lively and sharp guitarist, and a natural born rocker built for the stage. Accompanied by what is the best incarnation of the group (Lee Brown on bass and Mark Howe on drums, who will record the masterpiece that is Madman Roll), Fenech unleashes a hell of a classic after classic in versions that leave all others far behind. And even if we find the trio’s classics there, it is perfectly complementary in its set list, particularly by the presence of less common titles such as Mind Over Matter or I Go To Bed With The Undead. The CD contains four additional tracks: Lonesome Train, Rock Bop, Ain’t Gonna Bring Me Down and Graveyard Stomp. These tracks were also released on vinyl by Rumble Records under the title “Encores”.

Meteors (the) – Undead, Unfriendly and Unstoppable

Anagram GRAM43 [1989]
Ma Johnson Meets The Razorback – Disneyland – My Kinda Rockin’- Lonesome Train – Johnny God – I Go To Bed (With The Undead) – Out Of The Attic – Charlie, Johnny, Rawhead And Me – Brains As Well – Surf Mad Pig – Liars In Wait – Please Don’t Touch

The Meteors - Undead Unfriendly and Unstoppable

The Meteors continued their collaboration with Anagram and released Undead, Unfriendly and Unstoppable in 1989, shortly after the Mutant Monkey and the Surfer From Zorch. The album introduced new drummer Mark Howe (whose brief collaboration with the band proved fruitful) and ended the decade on a high note. Despite all my effort, I couldn’t retrieve the information, but I remember reading somewhere that part of the album was recorded with Toby Griffin.
Undead, Unfriendly and Unstoppable is better produced and more consistent than its predecessor. It reveals, once again, the band’s versatility and Fenech’s songwriting skills.
Thus, one can hear instrumentals with Surf influences (Surf Mad Pig), and the same Surf influence can be found in the final of Out Of The Attic. Of course, Fenech knows that the Psychobilly lays on a solid Rockabilly roots, and songs like My Kinda Rockin’ and Charlie Johnny Rawhead and Me are firmly anchored in the tradition. You’ll also find classic British Rock’n’Roll (Johnny Kidd’s Please Don’t Touch), but of course, this album is loaded with Fenech’s own brand of mean and threatening, yet always surprising, Psychobilly.

Meteors (the)  – The Mutant Monkey and the Surfers from Zorch

Anagram – CDMPSYCHO12 [1988]
Swamp Thing / Electro II / The Revenge / Sidewalk Psycho / I’m Invisible Man / She’s My Baby Again / Surfin’ On The Planet Zorch / Spine Bender / Dance Crazy Baby / Rawhide / Oxygen Dog / Yellow Zone / Meet Me At The Morgue / Little Red Riding Hood

Released in 1988 and featuring new bassist Lee “Red” Brown (ex Pharaohs) and Coffin Nails drummer Toby Griffin, the Mutant Monkey is a bit disappointing. It’s not bad (I don’t believe the Meteors ever released anything bad) it just lacks of a little something that made of Don’t Touch The Bang Bang Fruit a killer release. It contains its usual dose of solid Fenech’s originals (Surfing On Planet Zorch, Spine Bender, Swamp Thing, Meet Me At The Morgue) but some songs are just good (which is for a Meteors album disappointing) and the sound is uneven compared once again to Bang Bang Fruit that hardly contained a weak number and was perfectly produced. The cd version contains one bonus song, a cover of Lil’ Red Riding Hood.

Meteors (the) – Only the Meteors Are Pure Psychobilly

Anagram Records GRAM 33 [1988]
Voodoo Rhythm  Graveyard Stomp  Wreckin’ Crew  Sick Thing  Blue Sunshine  Mutant Rock  The Hills Have Eyes  Fire Fire  Power Of Steel  Eat The Baby  Rhythm Of THe Bell  Surf City  Go Buddy Go  Somebody Put Something In My Drink

only the meteors are pure psychobilly

Look at this title: Only the Meteors are Pure Psychobilly. More than a title, it’s a slogan! More than a slogan, it is a declaration of war. And what about the cover, which shows us the mighty alias of Fenech in the middle of the corpses and graves of his competitors (King Kurt, Frenzy, Skitzo, Restless), shown here as adversaries over whom he would have triumphed.
Obviously, with such an attitude, the music has to be up to par, but there is no need to worry. The album offers a retrospective of the group’s 1981-1988 period. If side B includes known recordings taken from albums and singles, side A provides a rereading of titles from the very first period of the group and is interesting in more than one way. Fenech, accompanied by the line-up of the time (Tobby Griffin on drums and most likely Lee Brown on bass), re-recorded the classics of the Meteors’ early period. My view is not objective because, unlike many fans of the group, I think that the Meteors have never been as good as with an electric bass, especially during the period which begins with the releases on Anagram and extends to Demonopoly. I am not denying, far from it, the importance of the Fenech, Lewis and Robertson group or of In Heaven. Quite the contrary, but the power of the new versions of Voodoo Rhythm and Graveyard Stomp makes us forget the original versions. Likewise, if Wreckin’ Crew was an excellent album, the production sometimes left something to be desired, which is not the case with the new versions of Wreckin’ Crew, Blue Sunshine, and Mutant Rock.
Ultimately, this album is more than a best-of but can reasonably be classified as an album in its own right, a new stone in the Psychobilly temple erected by Fenech.

Meteors (the) – Don’t Touch the Bang Bang Fruit

Anagram – CDMPSYCHO38 [1987]
Go Buddy Go – Midnight People – Low Livin’ Daddy – Your Worst Nightmare – Wildkat Ways / Repo Man – Don’t Touch The Bang Bang Fruit – Crack Me Up – Shakey Snakey – Psycho Kat – Let’s Go – Revenge Of El Trio Los Bastardos – Go Buddy Go (Wonkey Donkey Mix) – Don’t Touch The Bang Bang Fruit (Manky Monkey Mix) – Dateless Nights – Corpse Grinder

meteors don't touch the bang bang fruit

After the success of “Sewertime Blues” in 1986 (it reached #9 in the indie charts) Fenech came back the following year with a new line-up consisting of ex-Coffin Nails Toby Griffin on drums and Arms Malone on bass (if you look closely to the back cover of the reissue, you’ll see written in small characters “Arms Malone is Austin Stone”), and a new platter called “Don’t Touch The Bang Bang Fruit” one of their best and most diverse album to date.
It starts with a total appropriation of The Stranglers “Go Buddy Go”, takes a detour by the hillbilly inspired “Low Livin’ Daddy” with harmonica and ends with the Hank Marvin meets Ennio Morricone instrumental “Revenge Of El Trio Los Bastardos”. In between, Fenech, contrary to many followers, remembered the rockabilly roots of psychobilly with a cover of Jimmy Lee Maslon’s“Wildkat Ways” already sung by Nigel Lewis in the early days of the band and the frantic boogie “You Crack Me Up” previously heard on Live 1.
The production is perfect, full of good ideas to set the ambiance, slide guitar, cow bell and notice the fine use of the acoustic rhythm guitar on “Let’s go” and “Revenge…”. The listener goes from the haunting “Your Worst Nightmare” to the funny title track via the threatening “Repo Man” and the bluesy “Midnight People”.
This reissue contains the 12” mixes of “Bang Bang Fruit” and “Go Buddy Go”, which for some obscure reasons weren’t on the Anagram Single Collection, and two B-sides : a fantastic cover of “Dateless Night” and a Fenech’s own good enough to be a A-side called “Corpse Grinder”.
By 1987, despite the massive arrival of new bands, the Meteors were still the Kings of Psychobilly.

Meteors (the) – Sewertime Blues

Anagram – CDMPSYCHO37 [1986]
Ain’t Taking A Chance / So Sad / Here’s Johnny / Mind Over Matter / Acid And Psyam / Sewertime Blues / Return Of The Ethel Merman / Deep Dark Jungle / Never Get Away / I Bury The Living / Vibrate / Surf City / The Edge

Meteors sewertime blues

Sewertime Blues marks the beginning of the fruitful collaboration between the psychobilly combo and Anagram/Cherry Red. The Meteors incarnation of 1986 was newcomer Austin Stone on bass and Ian “Spider” Cubitt who previously drummed on Stampede and Monkey’s Breath.
Fenech proves once again that he has a strong vision and delivers another set of solid originals completed by well selected covers (Bob Luman’s Deep Dark Jungle, Mac Self’s Vibrate and Jan & Dean’s Surf City). It’s also another proof of Fenech’s skills on guitar. One listen to his sharp solos on So Sad and Here’s Johnny to name but two shows how he has incorporated elements of rockabilly merged with surf to create his “monster”. Equally great is the instrumental “Return Of Ethel Merman” (don’t know how they got the idea for the name). Sewertime Blues reinforced the band status as the undisputed leader of the scene and made, for good reasons, a decent stint in the indie charts.

Meteors (the) – Night Of the Werewolf

Raucous Records RAUCD 039 [1987]
X-Men Boogie ~ Rawhide ~ Maniac ~ Rock House ~ I’m Just a Dog ~ Stampede ~ Deep Dark Jungle ~ Hills Have Eyes ~ Kit Boy ~ Domino ~ Shout So Loud ~ Night of the Werewolf ~ Graveyard Stomp ~ These Boots Are Made for Walkin’ ~ It’s All Over Now.

meteors night of the werewolf

Previously released on a semi-official vinyl bootleg in the 80’s, Night Of The Werewolf has been reissued officially by Raucous in 2007. Though there’s no indication of dates, place or line-up, one can affirm by looking at the track listing that it has been recorded sometime around 1985 and the sound is quite similar to Live II released at the same period. It’s heavy and compact with Fenech’s voice full of anger. They rip through the first part of the set at a pace that would make the Ramones turn red in envy. Next to the band classics you’ll find many live versions of lesser played songs of the Stampede/Monkey’s Breath albums only available here, which is a reason good enough to buy it.

Meteors (the) – John Peel Sessions (1983-1985)

Raucous Records – RAUC 044
Ain’t Gonna Bring Me Down – You Crack Me Up – Lonesome Train – Long Blond Hair – Stampede – Deep Dark Jungle – Surf City – I’m Just A Dog – Torture – Meat Is Meat – Bertha Lou – Maniac

meteors peel sessions

Twelve tracks recorded during three sessions for John Peel in 1983 (tracks 1-4 with Rick Ross on bass and Matthew Fraser on drums), 1984 (tracks 5-8 still with Rick Ross on bass and Ian Cubitt on drums and Steve Andrews on backing Vocals) and 1985 (tracks 9-12 with Nev Hunt on bass and Ian Cubitt on drums). These recordings totally differ from the album versions, some are even better. Sadly the cd has been deleted from the catalog I guess but maybe you can find a second hand copy on the net.

Meteors (the) – Wreckin’ Crew

I.D. Records ‎– NOSE 1
Insane – I Ain’t Ready – Johnny Remember Me – I Don’t Worry About It – Axe Attack – Zombie Noise – Rattle Snakin’ Daddy -When A Stranger Calls – Phantom Of The Opera – Blue Sunshine – Wreckin’ Crew – Sick Things – Wild Thing – Get Off My Cloud – Mutant Rock – Hills Have Eyes – Fear Of The Dark – Scream Of The Mutants

meteors wreckin crew

When Nigel Lewis left the Meteors in 1982, one could fear that the band wouldn’t survive to the loss of one of its founder member. But Paul Fenech, still with Woodie Taylor on drums, far from being discouraged quickly recruited a new bass player, Mick White, switching from double bass to electric bass in the process and a guest singer, Russel Jones. White re-recorded the bass parts on some previously recorded songs by Lewis and they released Mutant Rock b/w Hills Have Eyes. This single and the Johnny Remember ep are included here as bonus. When the band went to the studio to record their second album, Taylor had already left to be replaced by Steve Meadham.
Without Lewis, the band sounded less garage/psychedelic and more rockin’. The developped what would become the psychobilly sound of the Meteors for the next decades and Wreckin’ Crew contains instant classics like Blue Sunshine, Wreckin’ Crew, I Ain’t Ready, I Don’t Worry About It and some still remains in the band’s setlist today . White’s contributation to the album didn’t limit to the bass duties as he penned two songs fort the album (Phantom of the Opera and Axe Attack) and two more that are included as bonus (Fear Of the Dark and Scream of the Mutants). All four of them are sung by Jones and if they don’t reach Fenech orLewis standards they remain quite enjoyable (especially Phantom of the Opera). Wreckin’ Crew also includes three covers The Troggs’ Wild Thing, a new version of Get Off My Cloud (that the band had already recorded for In Heaven) and the spooky Johnny Remember Me that even found its place in the UK pop charts.
In the end, Wreckin’ Crew proved to be as important as In Heaven for the band and the whole Psychobilly scene. And it was just the begining…

The Meteors – Mutant Rock

WXYZ Records – ABCD 5 [1982]
Mutant Rock – Hills Have Eyes

meteors mutant rock

In March 1982, Paul Fenech, Nigel Lewis and Woody Taylor went to Alvic Studios to record what should have been the second Meteors album. Here they recorded Blue Sunshine, Just the Three Of Us, Mutant Rock, The Hills Have Eyes (written and sung by Fenech), Another Half Hour Till Sunrise, Walter Mitty Blues, Dog Eat Robot and Island Of Lost Souls (written and sung by Lewis). Two instrumentals, Napoleon Solo and Jupiter Stroll, rounded the set.
Sadly, Fenech and Lewis parted ways shortly after, before the album was released (though most of the songs resurfaced on the coimpilation album Teenagers from Outer Space a couple of years later). Fenech decided to pursue the band with Taylor and kept the name and the songs he recorded during that session. Lewis did the same, and two songs ended on the fantastic Tall Boys’ single: Island Of Lost Souls / Another Half Hour Till Sunrise.
Spud, from the band Martian Dance, played with Fenech and Taylor for a while before a permanent bass player, namely Mick White, was recruited. A second singer, Russell Jones, reinforced the line-up.
Two songs from the Alvic sessions were chosen to make the first post-Lewis single: Mutant Rock and Hills Have Eyes with Mick White re-recording Lewis’ bass part and Jones adding some backing vocals.
Mutant Rock is a pure moment of Psychobilly genius, with sound effects and a discordant piano break that launches the wild guitar solo. Hills Have Eyes is slower but way more threatening, as the psychopaths from the movie of the same name.
It took only two songs to Fenech to demonstrate that the Meteors were far from finished. And though this line-up didn’t last long (Woody Taylor left around July 1982), it was clear that, with Fenech at the helm, they were launching a new era of creativity.

The Meteors – Radioactive Kid

Chiswick Records – CHIS 147 [1981]
Radioactive Kid / Graveyard Stomp

meteors radioactive

In April 1981, less than three months after the Meteor Madness session, the Meteors were back in the studio. The band was evolving fast, and the single marked another step in their evolution. Lewis’ Radioactive Kid is a punk-garage number that takes no prisoners. On the flip, Fenech’s Graveyard Stomp begins with an eerie and sinister introduction. Then after a quick call from Robertson on the snare, the song erupts into a manic Rockabilly number.
Like the previous EP, it was recorded by Adam Skeaping, who also worked in the classical music field. His knowledge of recording live music probably helped to capture the energy of the band in the studio.

Meteors (the) – Meteor Madness

Ace – SW 65 [1981]
Voodoo Rhythm – Maniac Rockers From Hell / My Daddy Is A Vampire – You Can’t Keep A Good Man Down

meteor madness

Very few bands or artists can brag about having created a style. Elvis Presley could, and the Meteors can. What the original trio of Paul Fenech (guitar and vocals), Nigel Lewis (double bass and vocals), and Mark Robertson (drums) achieved is to gather the influence of three individualities and launch a monster over the world: Psychobilly.
Before forming the Meteors, Lewis and Fenech played in the Rockabilly band Raw Deal with Pat Panioty (Deltas) and Terry Earl (Flying Saucers). But they wanted more, which eventually led the band to split. They teamed with Mark Robertson and formed the Meteors named after Junior Thompson’s band (who also sang Raw Deal.) The trio recorded a batch of Rockabilly tracks for Alligator records. Still, the sparkle that ignited the whole Psychobilly movement can be dated with the release of this four-track EP.
The EP kicks off with the Cozy Powell-inspired precise yet raw drumbeat of Robertson on Voodoo Rhythm, quickly followed by a hypnotic bass and guitar and Fenech’s hiccuping vocals. The second Fenech’s original is Maniac Rockers From Hell, a fast-paced rockabilly number sung with rage by Fenech.
The B-side features two Lewis’ self-penned numbers that he also sings. His toneless and cavernous voice makes the perfect contrast with Fenech’s one. On My Daddy Is A Vampire, Robertson once again sets the pace while Lewis sings the sad story of his family while Fenech keeps the Rockabilly element throughout. The following song is You Can’t Keep A Good Man Down. Imagine a country tune played by a garage band with a mean Rockabilly guitar.

Meteors (the) – The Lost Album

Raucous Records – RaucCD144 [2004]
I Don’t Worry About It – Your Wildkat Ways – Maniac – You Can’t Keep A Good Man Down – Ain’t Takin’ A Chance – Psycho For Your Love – The Room – Love Me – Red Headed Woman – Long Blond Hair – Haunt You Baby Rock – Your Baby Blue Eyes – Honey Roll – Domino – Drowning All My Sorrows – Crazy Crazy Lovin’

meteors lost album

Psychobilly fans and radioactive kids knew the existence of this recordings for years. Those were demos paid by EMI in 1980, when the young Meteors were looking for a contract, before Island got the deal. This is the original line-up (Fenech/Lewis/Robertson) halfway in their mutation from rockabilly to psychobilly. This ain’t no longer the clean sound one can hear on the “Alligator recordings” (My Baby Loves Me, Go Away, Crazy Love) but not yet the sound of “Meteor Madness” or “In Heaven”. Songs like Long Blonde Hair, Domino and Red Headed Woman are true (and wild) rockabillies while you can hear the seeds of psychobilly on Meteors’ songs like Psycho For Your Love, The Room and You Can’t Keep A Good Man Down. It’s very interesting to compare this demos with the definitive version recorded on later albums and ep’s. The drums are lighter here for example, but you know rockabilly will never be the same after that. “Your Wildkat Ways” and “Crazy Crazy Lovin’” sung by Lewis will resurface later on albums but this time sung by Fenech. This album gives you a chance to see what psychobilly is. Just compare Johnny Burnette’s “Sweet Love On my Mind” on these demos to the version the band plays on “Monkey’s Breath” to understand. A great album, indeed, you even have a blues (Honey Roll). So, as you – clever reader – have already understood, this is essential listening. More than music, history.

© Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Radium Cats (the)

Radium Cats (the) – Pink Hearse

Raucous Records Rauc 013T [1991]
Pink Hearse / Teenage Werewolf – Haunted By Your Love

Radium Cats

The Radium Cats, the Scottish Psychobillies with the crazy quiffs, released this three-song 12“ in 1991 on Raucous Records.
Brothers Lee and Paul Paterson are still respectively on double bass and guitar, but Mark Carr has replaced Johnny Maben on drums. Maben later joined the Kaisers. Lee takes the lead vocals on Pink Hearse and Haunted By Your Love, while Paul sings Teenage Werewolf.
Pink Hearse is wildly rocking, with a Gene Vincent feel to it. If the melody is somewhat traditional, the song is highlighted by a hot guitar solo in a superb Gallup meets Setzer vein. Teenage Werewolf is not the Cramps tune (all songs are originals) and sounds more like a slow from the Fifties, although it has a slight gothic and weird mood (well, it’s a werewolf-themed tune, what did you expect?). The last track, Haunted By Your Love, is a slow-paced threatening tune, sounding like the missing link between the Cramps and the early Guana Batz.

Fred “Virgil” Turgis

radium Cats

Diamond Daddio’s

Diamond Daddio’s (the) – Vauxhall A Go-Go

Diamond Disc 01 [2020]
Vauxhall A Go-Go – My Baby’s Gone – Who Put The ‘R’ – Diamonds From Outer Space

Diamond Daddio’s

Dave Prince (drums, backing vocals and screams) teamed up with guitarist extraordinaire Zac Zdravkovic, who also sings and plays double bass. The result is a four-track EP with three tunes penned by Diamond and an instrumental written by Zdravkovic.
Their pedigree is quite impressive; Prince played with Lee Gocher and the Sundowners, The Voo-Dooms, The Hi-Fi’s, The Untamed and Zdravkovic with the Jive Romeros, Hepchaps, Poker Dots and a couple more.
Vauxhall A-Go-Go kicks off with an Eddie Cochran kind of riff, and then the tune evolves into a Rockabilly/Rock’n’Roll full of contained tension and danger. Special credit must be given to Zdravkovic on this one. His guitar covers the whole gamut of the Rock’n’roll genre.
My Baby’s Gone has a melody reminiscent of Roy Hamilton’s Don’t Let Go with a more pronounced Rockabilly feel, and Johnny Burnette screams thrown in for good measure. Next is a celebration of the Rock’n’Roll genre, supported by perfect drums and a catchy guitar riff.
The final intro sounds like a cross between the Munster theme, Les Paul and some Surf music. All in all, the Diamond Daddio’s released a neat little EP.
I believe the pressings are now long gone, but you can try to catch it or listen to it on your favourite streaming platform.

Fred ”Virgil” Turgis

Southern Culture On The Skids

Southern Culture On The Skids – Southern Culture On The Skids

Lloyd Street Records [1985]
Bop Bop Bop/Primitive Guy/I Dig Tunnels/Psycho Surfing/Cocktail Song/Rockabilly Mud/Atom Age Trucker/Demon Death/Nothing Song

Southern Culture On The Skids

This is Southern Culture On The Skids’ debut album. The band started in 1983 when Rick Miller (guitar), whose father worked in a mobile-home factory, formed the band with original lead vocalist Stan Lewis, bassist Leslie Land, and drummer Chip Shelby. They released an EP, “Voodoo Beach Party”, which is now pretty rare (according to Miller, some copies sold for $100!!), soon followed in 1985 by their first full length simply called “Southern Culture On The Skids” and released on the Lloyd Street Records label.
This album is quite weird, and it’s hard to make the connection with the band that we now know as Southern Culture On The Skids. The main reasons are that Rick doesn’t sing, and the sound of the band and their inspirations come from just one source. Basically, you could resume this album as a cross between The Cramps, Tav Falco and a bit of Gun Club. It opens with a rockin’ instrumental (Bop Bop Bop) that is maybe the best track of the nine that compose this lp. The sound is more rockabilly (even if it’s a modern version of it) than the following albums. Lewis’s voice evokes Lux Interior but without the charisma and the power of the Cramps frontman. I can’t say this is a bad album. You find good ideas here and there, like the spooky “I Dig Tunnel”, in a vein similar to Eddie Noack’s Psycho, but to be honest, the main interest is the presence of Rick Miller and the fact that it is officially the first platter by Southern Culture On The Skids. Talking about a possible reissue on cd of this record, Miller answered to Butch Lazorchak, “If our popularity gets to the point where somebody can make some money off of them, I’m sure they’ll get reissued! At this point, I don’t have any reason to reissue them.”
This line-up lasted approximately until 1987 when Lewis left. The band continued, but soon after, Land also left the band. Mary Huff from The Phantoms, a Rockabilly band that opened for SCOTS, joined the combo. And the rest, as they say, is history…

Same Old Shoes

Same Old Shoes (the) – Gonna Go Bop

El Toro Records [2023]
Gonna Go Bop / Stella Got A Fella

Same Old Shoes

The Same Old Shoes, from Italy, released this single to announce their soon-to-be-released new album.
The A side is a self-penned tune. It is a good rocking’ and bopping’ tune, nothing too exceptional nor very original, but very good nonetheless. More interesting is their cover of The Fireflies’ Stella Got A Fella, which finds them playing with a fuller sound and including some early 60’s influences.

Slim Sandy and his Hillbilly Bopper

Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers – Lazy Day

Self-released [2023]
Lazy Day – Teardrops From My Eyes – I Hear You Talkin’ – Jack’n’Jill Boogie – Havin’ A Party – Buster’s Dream – I Got A Feelin’ – Goin’ Back Home – Dreamin’ Of You – Meet Me By The Moonlight – I Heard The Bluebirds Sing – Foolin’ Round – Up Above My Head – Kiss The Baby Goodnight

Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers

There’s no greater pleasure than being surprised by a band or an artist you know or think you know well. I’ve been following the musical adventures of Peter Sandmark (Slim Sandy) since I bought my first Ray Condo record a long time ago. His musical journey then took me to discover the Crazy Rhythm Daddies and Slim Sandy as a one-man band, with a detour to the Howlin’ Hound Dogs, for whom he played drums.
In recent years, he has formed with Willa Mae, his partner, the excellent and prolific Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers. They released many albums, each better than the other. The group has developed a very personal style of rural bop based on hillbilly, pre-war blues and a whole host of different influences. After a while, I came to almost take the band for granted. To me, it went without saying, something like, “Ah yes, another Slim Sandy album, I bet it’s going to be good.” And it was.
And Lazy Day has arrived. Something was different. The first visual impression gave me a clue: the cover was painted by Trace Nelson (aka Willa Mae) and not designed by Slim Sandy.

Finally, I put the disc in the player and what a joy, my friends. Lazy Day is more than just another excellent Slim Sandy album. Of course, it contains all the elements mentioned above that make their records successful, but with subtle differences. The trio Slim Sandy, Willa Mae, and Soda Pop welcome back Tom Hammel, already present on the previous album, on steel guitar. The band has added the services of Doc Mancini on double bass, which gives a fuller sound to the Hillbilly Boppers, taking the band towards an earlier Western-swing style, as in this cover of Cindy Walker’s I Hear You Talking.
It also allows Willa Mae to fully concentrate on singing. This is one of the significant differences from previous recordings. Of the fourteen songs, Willa Mae takes the vocal lead on half and is present either singing harmonies or duets on the remaining seven. The current scene lacks too many good female singers not to rejoice at this news. I’ve said it before in my previous reviews of the band; I love Willa Mae’s vocals. She sings with a disconcerting simplicity and naturalness, contributing to the group’s closeness. There is no effect, no pose. But be careful; simplicity does not mean poverty; quite the contrary. This remark is also valid for the group. The instrumentation seems simple. But this is only an appearance. Soda Pop may only play with a snare drum, but he’s always perfect and the perfect illustration of “less is more”.
Similarly, Tom Hammel adopts a simple style, close to the early/proto-western swing combos. Here, no glitz or Speedy West accelerations that would be out of place, but a stripped-down style that serves the song. And behind all that, we hear Slim Sandy’s guitar swinging like there’s no tomorrow. Its discreet presence is the architecture that holds it all together. There may only be four musicians, but each occupies a well-defined space that gives the impression that there are many more.
The repertoire gives pride of place to Charlene Arthur with no less than three covers (I’m Having A Party All By Myself, Kiss The Baby Goodnight and Dreamin’ Of You), but there is also a bluegrass waltz (Meet Me By The Moonlight), a gospel (Up Above My Head), a fantastic cover of Big Maybelle’s I Got A Feeling, and of course lots of Hillbilly bop. But for me, the song that stands out is their cover of the Canadian hit I Heard the Bluebirds Sing by Hod Pharis and Anne Little, then covered by the Browns, Jim & Jesse, Marty Robbins… There is in their version a freshness, simplicity and obviousness that makes the listener find themselves pressing the “repeat” button repeatedly. This feeling of closeness with the music and the group is one of the great qualities of the Hillbilly Boppers.
I often end up adding something like “I highly recommend this disc” or “Don’t wait to get it” at the end, but if at this point in the review, you haven’t understood that this album is essential, so all I have to do is go to the far North and become a trapper.

It’s available on all digital platforms or go to to get a physical copy.
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers – Rolling and Tumbling

Crow Matic Records CR-014 [2021]
It Ain’t Right – Ice Water – Jack’n’Jill Boogie – Whatcha gonna do When There Ain’t No Swing – Hit That Jive Jack – I Hear You Talkin’ – Meet Me At the Moonlight – Hillbilly Fever – Gettin’ that Lowdown Swing – Rompin’ and Stompin’ -Rolling and Tumbling

The latest Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers is made of the same combination of hot rustic bop, hokum, jug band and hillbilly harmonies as the previous ones. However, there are some differences in the mix.
More than half of the tracks feature the great Tom Hammel on steel guitar. Hammel and his instrument really bring something unique to the band. Also, you’ll hear a double bass played by Clark Brendon on a couple of tracks. It’s not that I dislike Willa Mae’s washtub bass, far from that, but having a double bass deepens their sound and brings diversity to the set. One will hear an excellent bluesy rendition of I Hear You Talkin’ sung by Willae Mae among these tracks.
There’s also a great gospel with the Carter Family’s Meet Me At The Moonlight.
Gettin’ That Lowdown Swing and Rompin’ and Stompin’ were recorded with French musicians, namely Bombo Lolo Tongo on steel, Colada Jones on piano and Max Genouel on guitar. The band goes for an early Western Swing style that suits them perfectly on these tracks. I’d really be curious to hear them try stuff with a horn or a clarinet a la Arnett Nelson.
This is the great talent of Slim Sandy and his band. Despite a somewhat limited arsenal, they always proposed something new and exciting, whether by finding new ways to play old songs or adding guest musicians.
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Slim Sandy & the Hillbilly Boppers – It Ain’t Right

Crow-Matic Records [2021]
Ice Water – Sweet Love On My Mind – It Ain’t Right – Sag Drag And Fall – Hillbilly Fever

Each new Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers is like reuniting with old friends. You’re always happy to meet them. Or it’s like turning the dial of your radio and hearing an old familiar voice, like the old-time radio shows.
Keeping the same approach with no concessions to trends or modernity, the trio, augmented here by the excellent Tom Hammel on steel guitar, rips through five hot numbers that are sure to give you the Hillbilly fever.
Glenn Barber’s Ice Cold Water seems tailored-made to received the Hillbilly Boppers’ treatment with Slim and Willa Mae singing harmonies like Jimmy and Johnny. Which led us to Sweet Love On My Mind. The Hillbilly Boppers’ version owes more to their version than Johnny Burnette.
Stuff Smith’s jazz/jive classic It Ain’t Right was already played by Slim with the Crazy Rhythm Daddies. I suspect their version to be also inspired by the Washboard Wonders, who recorded it on Bluebird in 1936. Anyway, Slim Sandy and the band turn it into a hillbilly/jug number, with perfect harmonies.
Their cover of Sid King’s Sag Drag and Fall proves how comfortable they are with bands having one foot in country music and the other in Rockabilly.
Hillbilly Fever (Little Jimmy Dickens) is another perfect vehicle for the band.
As for the previous release, this one is very joyful, exciting and as I said, they have something amicable in their music.
This one and the other albums can be found on Spotify, iTunes, Amazon and all musical platforms.
Also pay a visit to the band’s website at
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Slim Sandy & the Hillbilly Boppers – Done Gone!

Crow-Matic Records 2018
Done Gone!  – Chicken Shack Stomp – Romp and StompI’ve Got the Boogie Blue

Though tempting, it’s not always evident, nor fair, to compare one band to another to describe its music. You can give a vague idea, but you can also fail to describe the band’s personality. And you can’t deny that Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers have tons of personality. Album after album they created their style and no contemporary band sounds like them.
If you ever asked yourself (be careful, it’s here that I slip the comparison) “What if the Delmore Brothers had recorded a session with the Cannon’s Jug Stompers?” I guess that the result would be quite close to Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers’ latest ep.
The title track is pure hillbilly yet rocking at the same time. Chicken Shack Stomp is in the same vein and features Mike Sadava on steel guitar. Both are sung by Slim Sandy.
The B-sides opens with Romp and Stomp. Willa Mae and Slim Sandy sing harmony vocals on that one. I wrote it in previous reviews but let me say it again: Willa Mae is a real plus to the band with her mastery of washtub bass and her contribution to the vocals. This is confirmed by Charlene Arthur’s I’ve Got the Boogie Blues on which she sings lead.
All in all, Done Gone is an excellent ep that encompasses the sound of the band perfectly. The vinyl adds to the beauty of the thing, especially with a cover drawn by Slim Sandy/Peter Sandmark.
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers - Boogie Woogie FeverSlim Sandy & the Hillbilly Boppers – Boogie Woogie Fever

Crow-Matic Records 2018
Done Gone  – I’ve Got the Boogie Blue – Boogie Woogie Fever – Romp and Stomp – Chicken Shack Stomp – Buster’s Dream – Everybody Loves My Baby – It’s All Your Fault – Hillbilly Ball  – Crazy Bout You – No Good Daddy   – Saturday Night Fish Fry   

I was still catchin’ my breath and restin’ my feet after listening repeatedly to “Getting That Low Down Swing” that “Boogie Woogie Fever” arrived in my letter box. Slim! Dont you have no pity? Anyway, my feet will rest later. This new album contains twelve songs including four by Peter Sandmark/Slim Sandy.  They mix hillbilly, western swing (hence the return of Mike Sadava on steel for three tracks), hokum, jug bands music, country blues (with plenty of harmonica), skiffle, a dash of rockabilly and some rhythm’n’blues sparkled here and there.
This cocktail has proven to work very well for the trio (and their occasional guests) and “Boogie Woogie Fever” makes no exception. As they say “if it ain’t broken don’t fix it.”
We all know Peter since his Ray Condo days and the Crazy Rhythm Daddies so for a change I’d like to talk about the other two. Willa Mae is a real plus on vocals. Not only her voice blends very well with Peter’s when they sang together (take a listen to “No Good Daddy”), but she’s also top notch when she takes lead. I especially liked her rendition of “Everybody Loves My Baby.” And despite the apparent simplicity of her instrument (the washtub bass) she can get take the best out of it. The other key element is German Ebert sparse drumming. You won’t find drum rolls or crash cymbal here. He plays just what is needed, and it’s a quality. Talking about musicians, fans of Ray Condo will be happy to find Edgar Bridwell on violin on one track.
The cd comes with a 8-page mini comics drawn by Peter Sandmark but I’ve been told that it’s selling like hot cakes, so you’d better hurry if you want one (Slim Sandy’s website).
You can also find it (and the other albums) on Spotify, iTunes and Google Play.
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers - Getting that low down swingSlim Sandy & the Hillbilly Boppers – Getting that Low Down Swing

Crow-Matic Records 2017
Hug And Spank And Kiss – Hop Skip And Jump – Gettin’ That Lowdown Swing – Whoa Boy – No More Nothing – Be Bop A Lula – I Never See My Baby Alone – We’re Gonna Bop – Crawdad – Cadillac Model – Wow Wow Baby

This fine trio returns with another killer album. It kicks off with the Berry influenced “Hug, Spank and Kiss” written by Slim Sandy and featuring Eddy Cavalero (of the the Cavaleros, a band that also features German Ebert of the Hillblly Boppers on drums) on electric lead guitar. Back to a more acoustic sound with the Collins Kids’ “Hop Skip & Jump” with Willa Mae on lead vocals and harmonies by Slim. “Getting that Lowdown Swing” tales the listener back to the early western swing era (before the genre had a name). In the same vein you’ll find “Cadillac in Model A” and “No More Nothin'” both with Mike Sadava steel. He also plays on “I Never See My Baby Alone”. I always liked that one and the Hillbilly Boppers do great justice to that song.
There’s also a good dose of Hillbilly Bop with “Woah Boy” and “We’re Gonna Bop”.
Another good one is their cover of “Be-Bop-A-Lula.” It sounds like the Everly Brothers version but played by a skiffle band. More skiffle-billy follows with “Crawdad” that changes of pace in the middle and evolves into “Rollin’ My Sweet Baby’s Arms.”
Like the previous one it’s joyful and exuberant and it’s highly contagious.
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers - Jump Back!
Slim Sandy and the Hillbilly Boppers – Jump Back!

Slim Sandy & the Hillbilly Boppers – Jump Back!

Crow-Matic Records 2014
Jump Back, Love Me, Darlin’ Cory, I’m A Hog For You Baby, Jump Rope Boogie, n The Road Again, Pistol Boogie, Can’t Find The Doorknob, Cow Cow Boogie, Rock ‘n’ Roll Ruby, Rollin And Tumblin

Slim Sandy (Peter Sandmark) is a well known figure on the rocking scene. He drummed for Ray Condo, sang and played guitar in the Crazy Rhythm Daddies and released several albums as a one-man band. He now has a new band, the Hillbilly Boppers, with Willa Mae on washtub bass and harmony vocal and German Ebert on drums, Slim Sandy taking the lead vocals and playing harmonica and swingin’ guitar.

If you want to have a slight idea of the joyful noise made by this hot and fine trio, imagine a mix between the Delmore brothers, Jimmy and Johnny (thanks to Mae’s perfect harmony vocals ) played by a jug band (think Gus Cannon/Noah Lewis) with a swingin’ and a rockin’ edge and some skiffle elements and the fervor of some bluegrass gospels thrown in for good measure. It features eleven tracks lifted from the catalogs of Ella Fitzgerrald, Sun records, Jimmie and Johnny, Muddy Waters and everything good in between  Not only the music and the songs are solid but this record also has a communicative « joie de vivre » that is sure to make you move your feet.  Strongly recommended.
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

Slim Sandy - rough and ready
Slim Sandy – rough and ready

Slim Sandy – Rough & Ready

Sleazy Records SRCD09
Bow Legged Daddio-Cats Was A Jumpin’-Couldn’t Sleep Last Night-Flathead Ford-Slow Down Baby-No Gasoline-Mr. Guitar-Gettin’ By Jus’ The Same -Three Alley Cats-Party In Room 109
Here is a new short ten tracks Cd from the one-man band Slim Sandy for the spanish Sleazy Records. Slim is part of a today one-man trend with people like Bloodshot Bill, Scott H. Biram, Sheriff Perkins, The Legendary Tiger Man, Mark Sultan, Muskrat, Mr. Bonz, Urban Junior, Reverend Beat Man, The Fabulous Go-Go Boy and Rizorkestra just to name a few of them. But most of these guys are on the trashy side and are influenced more by Hasil Adkins or the sixties garage sounds than Doctor Ross or Harmonica Franck.
Slim with his guitar, harmonica, and suitcase drum is on the rockabilly, blues and hillbilly side. This album “Rough & Ready” with his eight self-penned songs and two covers (John Worthan’s “Cats Was a Jumpin’” and Roy Hall’s “Three Alley Cats” even if his “Flathead Ford” is very similar to Papa Lightfoot’s “Mean Old Train”) will delight the raw and primitive sound lovers. The last track “Party in Room 109” is a song Slim wrote based on the events that happened in room 109 at the Red Hot and Blue Rockabilly Weekender 2006. Don’t have to tell you that there were a lotta booze, yellin’ and savage rock’n’roll involved.
David “Long Tall” Phisel

This is Slim Sandy
This is Slim Sandy

Slim Sandy – This is Slim Sandy

Crow-Matic Records
Don’t Need Nuthin’ – 7 Nights To Rock – Come Back Baby – Bicycle Boogie – You Can’t Fool Me – Cabin By The Creek – California Blues – Down In Kokomo – The Way You Dance – Rock It All Night
This cd offers 10 cuts (three covers and seven originals) recorded live by Slim Sandy, the one man hillbilly blues band. Harmonica, guitar, drums and vocals all played in the same time by the same man. Slim Sandy’s inspiration goes from blues (Doctor Ross’ Come Back Baby) to hillbilly (a great rendition of Jimmie Rodgers’ California Blues with yodel) with a lot of Hasil Adkins and Rock’n’roll in between. Sandy’s own are great too and well written. Sure the sound is raw, but you don’t expect a one man band sounding like a Phil Spector production, do you? Believe me, you can’t go wrong with this guy !
Fred “Virgil” Turgis

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